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The Lower Animals

Sources: A Newly Discovered System Of Electrical Medication

It may, by some, be objected that, if we regard sensation as existing

only in the mind, as affirmed above, then we must concede mind to the

lower animal tribes, since they are subjects of consciousness, sensation

and will, as truly as ourselves. I admit this necessity, and

unhesitatingly take the position, as has been already done in the

classification of minds, that the lower animals are in fact endowed with

a somethi
g higher and more spiritual than their material bodies or

their animal vitality--something which bears distinguishing

characteristics of mind. I would not, however, be understood to say,

or to imply, that they possess all the characteristics of our minds,

even in a rudimental degree. I do not believe they do. My theory does

not accord to them either reason or immortality. Yet, in respect to the

latter, my views are less decisive, and my utterances usually more

reserved. But I think their minds may, and probably do, perish with

their bodies. Nevertheless, the existence of consciousness, sensation

and will, in any orders, does evidently presuppose some sort of mental

constitution. And such mental structure, in them as well as in us, must

be distinct from and superior to the animal vitality--compelling service

from the latter, and using it as a medium for communicating with the

body, and with the outer world in general.